A few more stupid comments have come to my attention regarding the origin and colonization of the white race. I know most didn't learn this in school and its hard to find a lot of books about it today, although there are quite a few. You can't write a book about something that you have no knowledge about and it certainly therefore follows that you aren't going to learn about it in the majority of educational institutions including Bible seminary.
I know that you just don't know, but its sad when you don't know that you don't know. The Bible says that truth is given to those who love truth. If you don't have a real love for truth - even if you think you may not like that truth - then you aren't going to have it. Sorry.
One of the silliest comments was a statement saying that the Greeks, Italians, and Spanish aren't white! Can you believe it! I know that we will find some Greeks, Spaniards, Portequise, and Italians that aren't white. But you will also find some folks from Nebraska, Kansas, and Ireland that aren't white. Heck, we even just finished celebrating Columbus Day and we heard plenty of troublemakers ranting about how we should't be celebrating the white racist colonization of America. Gee, folks are confused.
And I know it can get difficult to understand given the educational standards of the last 60 years in this and other nations, but Hispanic is not a racial determination. Hispanic is a language identifier. Just because there was widespread race mixing throughout Mexico, Central and South America and those people speak Spanish doesn't mean that Spaniards are not white. The majority of the people of Spain remain white and there are still white people in South America. Believe me, the white nationalists in countries like Argentina and Brazil can tell all of us in the U.S., Canada, and our other white sister nations what the consequences of race mixing are. Yup, they sure are living the dream down there. Are you ready for a majority non-white U.S.? Well, get ready for it. Like Brad Paisley says, "Welcome to the future!"
So for those of you who don't let MTV, CNN oh yeah, and even FOX news do your thinking for you, below is a little bit of info, among a vast array of other historical information available, that I have selected to share with you. It might be hard for some of you to read, depending on your educational level, but I know plenty of you will write and thank me and of course I say, "you're welcome!"
Start Reading - Now.
A highly respected Danish linguistic expert Dr. Ann Kristensen has reached the same conclusion (that we have proclaimed for years) that the Cimmerians who later became the Celts can be positively identified as a section of the so-called "Lost Ten Tribes of Israel" in deportation.
Dr Kristensen was skeptical at first but the more she researched into Assyrian sources she found the Cimmerians making their first appearance in recorded history around 714 B.C. in the very area of modern Iran where the Assyrians had settled the deported tribes of Israel a few years earlier. She reaches conclusions that the Gimira or Cimmerians are lost Israelites.
In "WHO WERE THE CIMMERIANS AND WHERE DID THEY COME FROM" - translated by Jorgen Laessoe of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Dr Kristensen wrote:
"There is scarcely reason any longer to doubt the exciting and verily astonishing assertion propounded by students of the Ten Tribes, that the Israelites deported from Bit Humria of the House of Omri are identical with the Gimirraja of the Assyrian sources. Everything indicates that the Israelite deportees did not vanish from the picture but that, abroad, under new conditions they continued to leave their mark on History.
Language Proofs Of Descent From Ancient Israel
A QUESTION OF ORIGIN
Note: the following study presents exciting new research identifying the descendants of the ancient lost house of Israel. It has tremendous bearing on Bible prophecy, the fulfillment of the covenants, and the duties and obligations of God's chosen people in the world today.
I. LINKS TO ANCIENT ISRAEL
What happened to the Biblical house of Israel, the people of God who were carried away into Assyrian captivity eight centuries before Christ and never heard from again? This age-old mystery can finally be solved through the knowledge which archaeology provides concerning ancient languages. The evidence following supports the theory that the ancient ten tribes of the northern kingdom of Israel, after their conquest by Assyria in the late 8th century, B.C., became the Scythian-Cimmerian-Celtic peoples who colonized Europe in the early Christian centuries. This has been analyzed in an interesting article by author and historian Geoffrey Ashe. (1)
We will address this through linguistics, the study of languages.
Names of tribal units change when carried over into other languages, making it a challenge to connect them without definite guidelines to determining language affinities. There are two well-established principles in particular that enter into this discussion regarding ancient languages, both European and Middle-Eastern. One concerns consonants, and the other concerns vowels. They are:
· "Guttural" consonants "Kh", hard "G", and hard "C" are interchangeable.
· Vowels are very frequently interchanged, added, or substituted.
We will examine what recognized language scholars have written concerning these principles, and then make a practical application of them. First, concerning consonants, the learned seventeenth-century linguistic scholar, Dr. O'Brien, compiler of the first Irish-Keltic language dictionary, had this to say: "It hath been observed in the remarks on the letter C, that it is naturally commutable with G, both letters being of the same organ and nearly of the same power; and hence, in our old parchments, they are written indifferently for each other.... The same indifference, or interchangeable use of letters G and C in the Latin tongue, and the latter being generally substituted in the place of the former, appears from ancient Roman inscriptions, and most particularly from that of the Columna Rostrata, erected in honour of Duillins, the Consul, whereupon were engraved the words macistratos, leciones, pucnando, Carthaciniensis, for magistratos, legiones, pugnando, Carthaginiensis, etc... Which gave occasion to Diomedes to call G a new consonant."(2)
This interchangeability of hard consonants was also true in ancient Mesopotamia. In the Assyrian Cuneiform Alphabet, the same character stands for both the hard "G" and "Kh," (as can be seen in the encyclopedia chart reproduced in the written form of this tract).(3) A moments' reflection will indicate to you that the same part of the mouth and throat is used to sound out all three hard consonants: Kh, hard G, and hard C, and that a change of spelling is easily and logically made from one to another, because virtually no change in pronunciation is involved. This is verified by modern Hebrew language and literature scholar, Dr. Isaac Elchanan Mozeson, who teaches language studies at Yeshiva University in Jerusalem. He states, "The Hebrew G, the Gimel, is often a K in Greek and other Western tongues. [The Hebrew letter G] resembles a backwards K."(4) As an example, Mozeson gives the word, "colossus," which originated as "Golios," the Hebrew word for the Biblical giant, Goliath. He states, "The Greek pronunciation would sound like "kol-ios" - just as the [Hebrew word for camel], Gamal, was rendered "kamelos." (5) Note again the interchanges between the K, G, and C.
Another key point is that it is the consonants which carry the value. Language expert, Siegfried H. Muller says, "In most languages, consonants are the main carriers of thought." Further, "The outstanding structural feature of the Hamito-Semitic family is triliterality of word roots. They consist mostly of three consonants, and the insertion or omission of vowels -- often not written and to be supplied by the reader...vocalization of consonants serves to create a set of verb and noun forms whose meanings are related to that of the root." In other words, from a word root of three consonants, various related words would be created by insertion of vowels, but all of them would carry the same basic meaning as the root. You would not be able to take a root word applied to a particular tribe of people, add differing vowels and identify a different tribe. If the cononental root word is the same, the two tribes would be the same people. For example, Muller says, "Correspondingly, from Hebrew KTV are derived KoTaV, "written," KTiVah, "writing," KTiV, "spelling," KToVet, "inscription," KTaV, "script," KaTaV, "correspondent." In all of these, although various vowels be added, the words all correspond to the same root topic. We will be applying this interesting principle shortly in connecting several seemingly unrelated ancient tribes.
Nineteenth-century scholar, Sir William Betham (1779-1853), was knighted by the King of England for his research into ancient history, language, and archaeology. He had this to say concerning vowels in ancient languages: "Vowels are often substituted for each other: the same words are written promiscuously with an a, o, and u, an e or an i." (6) As an example, he discussed the ancient inhabitants of western Britain, "the Welsh, who have ever called themselves by the name of Cymri, Cimbri, or Cumbri." (7) As can be easily seen, the name of this ancient tribe has been variously spelled with differing vowels: Y (often called a "pseudo-vowel"), I, and U. Such variations are a good example of the common vowel shifts which are found in the name of this historic people, who we will learn more of shortly.
Another scholar of renown was Dr. Richard Cumberland (1632-1718), Anglican Bishop of England in the early 17th century. He authored several celebrated books, and was well-regarded in his day for his expertise in ancient history and languages. He wrote, "The learned will not wonder at change of vowels in a name, especially when its made by authors of different countries and times, because they know this is a thing very usual; yet for the service of readers that are not much used to such changes, I will give proof thereof."
"Wherefore, I have observed, that in Jeremiah 48:23, our translation calls a place in Moab, Beth Meon, which signifies the house or temple of Meon, agreeably to the Hebrew text and to the Chaldee paraphrase. But the Septuagint calls it the house of Maon; and so doth the vulgar Latin. The Moabites agreed with the Egyptians in their idolatry, who worshipped their first king and planter as a god, under the name of Osiris. But when they speak of him as a man who first reigned among them, they call him Meon or Menes, with a Greek termination: Which word, Bochart well observes, signifies habitations or places to dwell in, which he brought them to and settled them in." Samuel Bochart (1599-1667) was a well-known Huguenot scholar.
"Now, by the same reason that Meon is changed into Maon, Menes must become Manes, as he is called in Herodotus and Dionysius Halicarnassensis, or Manis, as this god and powerful potentate is called by Plutarch de Iside. (8)
On the subject of vowels, Professor Cyrus H. Gordon, who is perhaps the leading American archaeologist of the twentieth century, stated concerning a Hebrew Old Testament name, "The ancient Hebrew text... has only the consonants...which were later supplied with vowels to make a verbal noun of it." (10) In the 6th century, A.D., Hebrew scholars added vowel marks to the text of the Hebrew Bible in an attempt to restore the original pronumciation of words. But in some cases, with words not commonly used, they had to guess what the original vowel signs should have been. One example of this is the word, Gomer, which was used in the text of Genesis, Hoseh, and Ezekiel between 1200 and 600 B.C., well over a millennium before post-New-Testament-era scholars added vowel marks. Scholars now know that the letter-sound "O" was not in use in Semitic languages in ancient times. Linguist C.B.F. Walker says that the ancient Semitic languages used the four vowel sounds a, e, i, and u. (Reading the Past, p. 26)
Dr. Isaac Mozeson adds, "The Bible has no vowel marks in the original, handwritten parchment form...Vowels are certainly interchangeable, and ought to be largely ignored when comparing words from different languages." (9) We will therefore remove the vowels in comparing the names of the following four mysterious peoples in ancient times.
It is true that some Semitic languages, such as Hebrew, originally contained no written vowels at all, but only consonants, with the vowels supplied by the reader. The drawback to this is obvious: Different speakers might use different vowels, creating a slightly different pronunciation of the same words. As an example, the name of God in Hebrew consisted of the four consonantal characters, YHVH, and is therefore called the tetragramation, meaning "four letters." Centuries later, a scholarly argument is raging concerning whether the name of God was originally pronounced Yahweh, Yahvee, Yahvah, or something similar. The solution may perhaps never be known, because of the absence of vowels in ancient written Hebrew. Indeed, it is possible that more than one pronunciation was in use in ancient times, due to the absence of stated vowels to guide the speaker.
III. FOUR TRIBAL NAMES
These two principles, concerning consonants and vowels in ancient languages, will help us in identifying several ancient tribal names which are prominent in the Bible and ancient history. These are the:
These names at first notice appear to be entirely different peoples - or are they? Modern scholars now admit that at least three of them are only different forms of the same tribal name. To see that this is the case, let us first examine the above names using our language principle concerning consonants. Since the guttural consonants KH, G, and C are all interchangeable, we can rewrite these names as follows: (Note that in the third name, we can drop the "ANS" which is simply a Greek suffix indicating proper names. This gives us:
· GIMMERI (ANS)
This helps to make the picture clearer, but we need to also realize that vowel shifts, or changes in the vowels used in a name, were frequent occurrences. In addition, some ancient languages did not include vowels in their writing at all. Therefore, the identity of these four can be most easily seen if we write them using the consonants only:
Repetition of consonants, as seen in the second and third names above, was also a common occurrence. Therefore, by the grammatical rules governing language, all four tribes must be one and the same people. Who were they? Let's examine them one at a time.
IV. MANY NAMES, ONE PEOPLE
THE "KHUMRI" OR "GOMRI"
When the conquering armies of the nation of Assyria came against the ten-tribe kingdom of the house of Israel late in the eighth century, B.C., they did not refer to God's People as "Israel" or "Jews." Instead, the Assyrian word for them was, "Khumri." This has been established through the deciphering of Assyrian "cuneiform" clay tablets. Ancient historian, Alan Ralph Millard, in his recent book, "Treasures from Bible Times," says, "In 1846 men working for Henry Layard on the site of the ancient Assyrian city of Calah (Nimrud) uncovered a block of polished black stone, carved and inscribed. The 'Black Obelisk' records the triumphs of the Assyrian king, Shalmaneser... The first panel in the second line of pictures proved exciting. The text above the kneeling figure lists tribute brought to the king from 'Yaua son of [Khumri]' that is, Jehu, who took the throne from a descendant of Omri, king of Israel." (11) Millard reproduces the Assyrian words mentioning Israel, along with a literal translation.
Famed 19th century archaeologist, Sir Henry Layard, rediscovered the ancient Assyrian cities, and remarked, "An identification connected with this word KHUMRI or Omri is one of the most interesting instances of corroborative evidence that can be adduced of the accuracy of the interpretations of the cuneiform character...Sargon is called on the monuments of Khorsabad, 'the conqueror of Samaria and of the circuit of Beth KHUMRI'...Samaria having been built by Omri, nothing is more probable than that - in accordance with a common Eastern custom - it should have been called, after its founder, Beth KHUMRI, or the house of Omri." (12) Samaria was the capital of the Ten-Tribe Israel nation. The Assyrians named the Israelites after their King Omri, which they pronounced "Khumri" or "Gomri." This is not surprising, because the Israelites, as well, often gutturalized the pronunciation of the Hebrew "O" by prefixing to it the sound of a "G" or a "Kh." Hebrew scholar Mozeson gives, as examples, "The correct guttural pronunciation of 'olum' (world, eternity) is really 'kholum'," (13) and the city-name, "Amora," is pronounced in Hebrew, "Gomorrah." (14)
So the first mysterious tribe of our ancient list, the Khumri or Gomri, are definitely identified by ancient inscriptions as Israelites of the so-called, "lost ten tribes," who disappeared from history in the Caspian Sea region of Medo-Persia during the late 8th century and early 7th century, B.C.
THE "GIMIRRAI, GOMER, CIMBRI, CELTS, TEUTONS"
The Encyclopedia Britannica says, "Certain it is that in the middle of the 7th century, B.C., Asia Minor was ravaged by northern nomads (Herodotus iv. 12), one body of whom is called in Assyrian sources Gimirrai and is represented as coming through the Caucasus. They were probably Iranian speakers, to judge by the few proper names preserved. The name has also been identified with the biblical Gomer, son of Japheth (Gen. x. 2,3). Later writers identified them with the Cimbri of Jutland, who were probably Teutonized Celts..." (15)
It is fascinating that the Gimirrai suddenly appeared out of seeming nowhere in the same century as the lost tribes of Israel disappeared, yet no scholar ventures to investigate a link between them. The additional mention of "Iranian" (i.e., Medo-Persian) words in the Gimirrai vocabulary indicates some physical contact between the Gimirrai and Medo-Persians, such as the captive Israelites might have been expected to have had. Historian Sharon Turner, in fact, stated that he identified 262 Medo-Persian loan-words in the Anglo-Saxon-Cimmerian vocabulary. (16) Who were these mysterious people? According to scholars, the Gimirrai, Gomer, Cimbri, Teutons, and Celts are all linked together as the same people. By applying the rules of language, we realize that the "Gimirrai" were also the same people as the "Khumri," who have been positively identified as Israelites of the lost ten tribes. It is therefore no coincidence that the lost tribes of Israel disappeared in Medo-Persia-Iran (II Kings 17:6), the birthplace of the Gimirrai.
The same Encyclopedia Britannica article has this to say about the people known today as Cimmerians: "An ancient people of the far north or west of Europe, first spoken of by Homer (Odyssey, xi. 12-19), who describes them as living in perpetual darkness. Herodotus (iv. 11-13), in his account of Scythia, regards them as the early inhabitants of South Russia (after whom the Bosporus Cimmerius and other places were named.)" (17) The same encyclopedia reference also traces the European "Cymry" and "Celts" to this same people. There seems to be no question in historian's minds, that whoever these Cimmerians were, they were the ancestors of a significant branch of the modern people of Europe. (See box below) Again, by applying the two basic linguistic rules mentioned previously, it may be seen that the Cimmerians were none other than the Khumri or Gomri, the lost ten tribes.
BIBLE "GOMER" MIGRATED TO EUROPE
"Gomer...a people known in Assyrian inscriptions as Gamir or Gimirrai. They are the Cimmerians of ancient Greek literature...According to the Greek author Homer, the Cimmerians... appeared in the northern provinces of the Assyrian Empire at the time of Sargon II, during the 8th century, B.C....Poets of the time spoke of the "Cimmerian Bosporos," and the Armenians still call part of their country Gamir. It is thought that the Crimea bears their name to the present day." -Adventist Bible Commentary, vol. 1, p. 269
"...In Yoma 10a and Yer. Meg.i.9...stands either for "Cimmerii" or for "Germany". -The Jewish Encyclopedia, vi:40
"Gomer: ...Most of the interpreters take him to be the ancestor of the Celtae, and more especially of the Cimmerii." -Popular & Critical Bible Encyclopedia, ii:726
"Gomer...became identified with the German Cimbri and the Celtic Cymry." "The old sound of their name is still retained in the mouth of the inhabitants of Wales, who call themselves Cumri or Cymry, and their land Cymru." -Franz Delitzsch, quoted in Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, by John Peter Lange, xiii:362
"The Cimbri, as well as the Cumry or Cymry in Wales, and in Bretagne [Britain], are to be regarded as in relation with the Cimmerians." -Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, by John Peter Lange, i:348
V. WHO WAS GOMER?
The eminent Christian historian and archaeologist, Dr. Henry Sayce, stated, "Gomer is the Gimirra of the Assyrian inscriptions, the Kimmerians of the Greek writers." (18) Many reference works associate the names Gimirrai and Cimmerians with Gomer, connecting all three together (see references above) using the very same established linguistic rules we have presented. In fact, because the ancient Hebrew language did not contain vowels, the present rendering of "Gomer" is a later construction. Since it is now known that the original Assyrian word for Israel was pronounced "Khumri," and the Babylonian was "Gamir" or "Gimirrai," it is probable that the original vowel-less Hebrew word was pronounced similar to these actual forms, as well. This information is known through the reading of ancient source documents which give us an accurate view of the 7th century, B.C. world that was not possible until recent years.
The first scholarly reference above tells us that the Gimirrai suddenly appeared in history during the reign of Sargon II, 722-705 B.C. He was the Assyrian king who conquered Samaria and deported the Israelites to the Assyrian-controlled province of Medo-Persia. It is amazing that historians never notice the tremendous "coincidence" of this: The first historical notice of the existence of the Gimirrai was during the same 17 years that the Israelite-Gomri-Khumri were deported and lost to history in that same province!
GOMER IN GENESIS
But the connection of "Gomer" or "Gimirrai" with ancient Israel has been clouded by confusion over reference to them in the tenth chapter of Genesis, the so-called "register of nations." In Genesis 10:2-3, we read, "The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah." A literal, racial interpretation of these verses would make Gomer (or Gimir) a son of Japheth, and not of Shem as the Israelites were. But there are at least two important reasons why this is not so. First, Japheth lived at the time of the Noahic flood, which has been dated by Christian scholars to about 3400 B.C., more than 2,500 years before King Omri, who reigned about 882 to 871 B.C. As shown previously, the Israelites were called "Khumri" or "Gimirri" after King Omri; clearly, the "Gomer" in Genesis chapter ten is ages before his time!
Secondly, the tenth chapter of Genesis is a geographic representation of nations, rather than racial, and is allegorical rather than literal. We believe in taking the Bible literally whenever possible, interpreting allegorically only when a literal explanation cannot apply, such as the case here. It has been shown by scholars that the national relationships found in Genesis Ten do not fit a literal, racial interpretation. For example, Dr. Sayce says, "The tenth chapter of Genesis is ethnographical rather than ethnological. It does not profess to give an account of the different races of the world and to separate them one from another according to their various characteristics. It is descriptive merely, and such races of men as fell within the horizon of the writer are described from the point of view of the geographer and not of the ethnologist. The Greeks and Medes, for example, are grouped along with the Tibarenian and Moschian tribes because they all alike lived in the north; the Egyptian and the Canaanite are similarly classed together, while the Semitic Assyrian and the non-Semitic Elamite are both the children of Shem. We shall never understand the chapter rightly unless we bear in mind that its main purpose is geographical. In Hebrew, as in other Semitic languages, the relation between a mother-state to its colony, or of a town or country to its inhabitants, was expressed in a genealogical form. The inhabitants of Jerusalem were regarded as 'the daughter of Jerusalem,' the people of the east were 'the children' of the district to which they belonged." (19)
Dr. Sayce points out that this is the reason the South Arabian tribe of Sheba is listed twice in Genesis Ten, once under the designation of Ham in verse seven, and again listed under Shem in verse twenty-eight. The tribe of Sheba originated in the south, later spreading a colony far to the north to clash with Assyria in the days of Tiglath-Pilesar and Shalmanesar. (20) Sayce further remarks, "When, therefore, we are told that 'Canaan begat Zidon his first-born, and Heth,' all that is meant is that the city of Sidon, and the Hittites to whom reference is made, were alike to be found in the country called Canaan. It does not follow that there was any ethnological kinship between the Phoenician builders of Sidon and the prognathous [i.e., 'protruding-jaw'] Hittites from the north. Indeed, we know from modern research that there was none." (21) Sayce, in fact, reproduces Egyptian drawings of both Phoenicians and Hittites, (shown in the printed form of this tract) showing graphically that there was a dramatic difference in racial features (and therefore origins) between these two peoples. Similarly, Assyria, Elam, and Babylonia (Arphaxad) were called brethren, "not because the natives of them claimed descent from a common father, but because they occupied the same quarter of the world." (22) Ancient races portrayed on Egyptian monuments are shown in the printed version of this tract, reproduced from Sayce's book. Included are a king of the Hittites (with pigtail), Hittite soldiers, an Israelite, and a chief of Ganata or Gath, showing Phoenician-Canaanite features. (23)
PROPHETIC NAMES FOR ISRAEL
GOMER: Assyrian, Khumri or Gomri; Babylonian, Gimirrai or Gamir, Greek, Cimmerian; English/Welsh, Cymry, Cimbri, Cumbri, or Celt
JEZREEL: "Scattered" into Assyrian dispersion 762-676 B.C.
LO-RUHAMAH: "Not pitied" by God because their sins received a just recompense.
LO-AMMI: "Not God's People," because they were divorced by Him and sent away to a far land.. Scholars have traced their migration through the Caucasus Mountain region and into Europe in the early pre-Christian centuries.
SONS OF THE LIVING GOD: "Christians" -Israel's ultimate restoration would later come when they accepted Christ as Savior, becoming His Bride at the marriage supper of the lamb.
GOMER IN HOSEH
The name, Gomer, appears again in an interesting passage in Hoseh 1:3. The Encyclopedia Britannica comments on that prophetic book by saying,: "The most interesting and important problem of the book relates to the marriage of Hosea, which is closely related to the form and content of his message. According to the first chapter, Hosea is commanded to take a harlot for his wife and children of harlotry; he therefore marries Gomer bath Diblaim, who subsequently has three children, to whom the prophet gives symbolic names that he may make them the texts of prophetic messages concerning Israel." (24) In prophetic symbolism, the prophet Hoseh marries an Israelite harlot named "Gomer," (probably originally pronounced "Gomri" or "Gimir") symbolizing the Ten Tribes of Israel, who true to the prophecy became known as Gimirrai or Cimmerians. In God's eyes, Israel indeed was a harlot adulterating herself with false worship, and the fact she is purposely called "Gomer" shows that people to be ethnic Israelites. The symbolism continues with their children's names: Jezreel, (meaning "scattered"), Lo-Ruhamah ("not pitied"), and Lo-Ammi ("not my people"). As these prophetic names show, Israel was punished by being conquered, scattered in the Assyrian dispersion, and divorced by God. Hoseh's words therefore make no logical prophetic sense unless "Gomer" and her offspring were lost and dispersed Israel and their descendants. Hoseh 1:10 is appropriate here: "In the place where it was said unto them, 'You are not my people,' (i.e., no longer recognized as Israel and perhaps blind to their true identity), there shall they be called, 'sons of the living God.' (i.e., "Christ-sons" or Christians, an indication that a Spiritual transformation in them would later occur). History recorded the fulfillment of that prophecy when the "Celtic-Cimmerian" peoples migrated into Europe, accepted Christianity, and became known as Christendom, or "Christ's Kingdom."
"Hoseh's words make no logical prophetic sense unless Gomer and her offspring were lost and dispersed Israel."
GOMER IN EZEKIEL
One last important reference to Gomer needs to be mentioned, which appears in Ezekiel chapter 38. Gomer is listed as joining a confederacy led by "Gog, chief prince of Meschech and Tubal." Gomer apparently does not lead this confederacy, nor are the other listed confederate nations Israelites. In addition, one should not assume that all of the lost tribes, Gomer/Gamir, are allied with Gog, but only one portion. So it is primarily a non-Israel invading force, which also includes some number of Israelites. Therefore, dispensationalists who identify Gomer as Europe may be at least partially right in that identification, because the Celtic-Cymry race did spread throughout Europe, before colonizing North America, Australia, South Africa, and other lands. But because Gog's army invades the "mountains of Israel," they assume that Gomer itself must not be Israelite. That assumption has little basis. Israelites have warred among themselves since the kingdom was divided into Israel and Judah after the time of Solomon, about 975 B.C. Whether the battle typified in Ezekiel is literal or allegory is impossible to predict beforehand, but that it represents to some degree yet another fratricidal war between Israelites seems obvious.
One possible fulfillment was addressed in the old nineteenth-century prophecy, "GEORGE WASHINGTON'S VISION," a prophetic vision received by America's first President during the Revolutionary War. It speaks of a confederacy comprised of "Europe, Asia, and Africa" coming in battle against America: "Then my eyes beheld a fearful scene: From each of these countries arose thick, black clouds that were soon joined into one." The late Professor C.A.L. Totten of Yale University wrote in the year 1898: "The third and last peril clearly indicates a future invasion of our country by the Old World. The drift of events and Bible prophecy indicate that a great combination of powers will be the actor." (25) In the prophecy, help against this peril comes in the form of divine assistance, apparently the Second Advent.
"GOMER WAS AN ISRAELITE..."
-Dr. Thomas Scott's Bible Commentary,
Vol. IV, p. 704, Hoseh 1:2 (1864)
VI. SUMMARY: TWO CERTAINTIES
The Encyclopedia Britannica article we quoted states that it is "certain" that the tribe of Gomer is identified with the Celts, Teutons, and related peoples of Europe. We have found through linguistics (the study of languages), as well as through Bible prophecy in Hoseh, that the people called Gomer or Gimir are in fact Israelites. Linguistically, Israel's name, Khumri, is the phonetic equivalent of the European, Cymri; and Gomri/Khumri is also the consonantal equivalent to Gomer, Gimir, and Cimmiri. Therefore, if it is indeed a certainty that Gomer is found in the Europeans of today, then it is an equal certainty that those same Europeans are Israelites.
We have quoted sources that find these Cymry-Celtic people in England, Wales, and Germany. The Encyclopedia Britannica further traces them to Scandinavia, Scotland, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, and Russia; in fact, they spread themselves throughout the continent of Europe. The Britannica also reveals that the New Testament Epistle to the Galatians was written to them,26 in which the Apostle Paul refers to them as "the sons of Abraham." (Galatians 3:7)
It is odd that scholars so easily admit to certainty concerning the relationship between the names Gomer, Gimirrai, and Cimmeri, yet are silent concerning the name Khumri. It is never mentioned or investigated. Author and historian Geoffrey Ashe, mentioned earlier, states that it is "altogether too complicated" and "a theme for speculation only." That argument is rather specious, since it never appears "too complicated" for them to positively link the other three names Gomer, Gimirrai, and Cimmeri, using the same rules!
Mr. Ashe also speaks of "alleged linguistic coincidences" which support the Anglo-Israel view. But there is nothing either alleged or coincidental about it. The information we have presented is based upon standard, accepted grammatical rules, and the known fact that Israel was the Khumri of the ancient inscriptions. Since the name Gomri/Khumri is the consonantal equivalent of Gomer, Gimir, and Cymri, it would indeed be a strange "coincidence" if they were not identical peoples! Scholars don't consider the identity of the latter three as coincidence, but as fact!
What does this mean to you and I who trace our roots to this same Biblical people? It is a tremendous heritage and responsibility that we realize. Israel was to be God's servant nation, and a light to the world. Israel, too, would receive many promises, including Jacob's blessing as outlined in Genesis chapter 49. The knowledge of your identity should inspire and invigorate you with evangelical fervor, to make a positive difference in your world and to serve God more faithfully each day. The Anglo-Israel identity is now a proven fact! What you do with this knowledge is up to you. See to it that you make your calling and election sure! (2Peter 1:10)
Geoffrey Ashe, article: "Lost Tribes Of Israel," in "The Encyclopedia of Myth and Magic," pp. 1645-1646.
Dr. O'Brien, quoted in Betham, "Etruria-Celtica," 1842, vol. 1, p. 59
McClintock & Strong's Encyclopedia, vol. 2, p. 603
Dr. Isaac Elchanan Mozeson, "The Word," 1989, p. 39
ibid., p. 49
Sir William Betham, "Etruria-Celtica," 1842, vol. 1, p. 58
ibid., p. 14
Dr. Richard Cumberland, "Origines Gentium Antiquissimae; or, Attempts For Discovering the Times Of the First Planting of Nations," London, 1724, p. 331
Dr. Cyrus H. Gordon, "The Common Background Of Greek And Hebrew Civilizations," W.W. Norton & Co., 1965, p. 138
Mozeson, p. 10
Alan Ralph Millard, "Treasures From Bible Times," 1985, p. 31
Sir Austen Henry Layard, "Discoveries Among The Ruins Of Assyria And Babylon," G.P. Putnam & Sons, 1853, chapter 26, pp. 492-494 abridged edition; pp. 612-614 unabridged edition
Mozeson, p. 48
ibid., p. 80
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1957, vol. v, p. 707-8
Sharon Turner, "History of the Anglo-Saxons," 1836, p. 100
Encyclopedia Britannica, ibid., p. 707
Dr. A. H. Sayce, "Races of the Old Testament," 1925, p. 71
ibid., p. 65-66
ibid., p. 67
ibid., p. 66
ibid., p. 66-67
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1957, vol. xi, p.783
National Forecast Magazine, vol. xix, Oct., 1959
Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910, vol. v, p. 611-614
The Other Exodus
Forgotten History of the
Danite Exodus from Egypt!
In the days of the Pharaohs, we read of an adventurous hero named Danaos and his followers who dwelled in Egypt. Then came an event, or series of events now corrupted by the mists of time, which caused them to be exiled by the Egyptians. Recorded history then tells us that they boarded ships in Egypt and sailed away to establish new homes in Greece.
The beginning of Greek history is often dated to this “exile” of Danaos and his followers, called Danaoi or Danaan, from Egypt. This event has been dated by historians to about 1450 to 1493 B.C. However, it is significant that the Hebrew exodus from Egypt is dated to the very same time-period: 1447 to 1491 B.C. Are these two events related? Could indeed the Danaan “exile” from Egypt have been a part of the Hebrew “exodus”? An analysis of ancient records indicates that this was indeed the case.
The Hebrew Exodus
The exodus — that wondrous event by which “the Lord did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt” (Ex. 12:51) — has been called Israel’s Independence Day and the turning point in world history. The starting point of their journey was the city of Rameses, located about six miles from the present Egyptian capitol of Cairo. As God’s people set forth on their trek out of Egypt to the Promised Land, Pharaoh pursued with 600 chariots (Ex. 14:7), a mighty host that must have stretched a half-mile long at three abreast, plus an unknown large number of foot soldiers. Into an opening of the Red Sea they rushed! God temporarily held back the flood, creating a dry pathway long enough to allow His covenant people to escape, but Pharaoh and his army perished as the sea returned. This miraculous event is memorialized in the Song of Moses (Ex. 15:1-18), and sung in victory by the redeemed Overcomers in the Millennial scene of Revelation 15. It is therefore a type or shadow of the New Covenant victory of Christians over unbelief, sin and evil, and contains lessons for us all to benefit from today.
First century, B.C., Greek historian, Diodorus Siculus, gave collaborating evidence from the Egyptian point-of-view for the truth of the Bible’s exodus account. Of the Hebrews, he said, “Their forefathers had been banished out of the whole of Egypt... in order to purify the land.” (The History Of Antiquity, p.458) There was some truth to this assertion, after Egypt had endured the horrible swarms of insects and pestilential diseases of the ten plagues!
Early Greek geographer and historian, Strabo (born 63 B.C.), also lent support to the Biblical account, saying, “Moses told them and taught that the Egyptians were not right in representing the divinity as a wild or domesticated animal, nor the Libyans, nor were the Hellenes wise in giving gods the form of men. For only the One was God which surrounds us all... By such doctrines Moses convinced not a few men of reason, and led them to the place where Jerusalem now is.” (ibid., p. 459) These “doctrines” of Moses are known as the Ten Commandments. You can read them yourself in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5.
A Second Exodus
Some historians say that the Egyptians left no contemporary surviving accounts of the presence of Hebrews and the exodus. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (iv:7) reports, however, that as early as the 15th century, “Egyptian texts… mention… a foreign people called “Apuriu” residing in Egypt and performing the service of slaves.” The encyclopedia further states that these people are identified by many scholars as the Habiru or Hebrews. Ancient records also report that a Semitic people called Danaan were expelled from Egypt, and sailed to Greece to establish the early Greek civilization. Could the fabled Danaan be a reference to the Biblical Hebrew tribe of Dan? William Ridgeway’s Early Age of Greece (p.220) dated the Danaan exodus from Egypt as 1450 B.C. This is virtually identical to the date of the Hebrew exodus, which is dated to 1447 B.C. by Dr. Stephen E. Jones and 1453 B.C. in Dr. Adam Rutherford’s Bible Chronology (p.120). Other historians use slightly differing dates: The History of Etruria (p.95) by Mrs. Hamilton Gray dates the Danaan exile at 1493 B.C., which compares to a Hebrew exodus of 1491 B.C. according to Bishop Usher’s dating. (McClintock & Strong’s Encyclopedia III:396) Two unrelated Egyptian exoduses did not occur at the same time! Historic evidence indicates that the Danaan were the seafaring Biblical tribe of Dan and were therefore part of the Hebrew Exodus. The Bible tells us that the tribe of Dan were seafarers who “stayed in their ships.” (Judges 5:17) The Bible also gives much other evidence of Hebrew seafaring in ancient times, as related in our companion study Ancient Hebrew Sea Migrations.
It should be mentioned that some Christian expositors date the exodus two centuries later, around 1225-1275 B.C., trying to fit a full 400-year captivity entirely within Egypt through a misunderstanding of the Scripture record. (See Secrets Of Time, by Dr. Stephen E. Jones for details on this issue.) Many scholars agree that this date is too late, and conflicts with the time of the Judges. In addition, Egyptian monuments during the 14th century refer to a region of western Galilee as “Aseru,” which was settled by the Hebrew tribe of Asher after the settlement of Canaan. (Jewish Encyclopedia 2:180) Therefore, Israel had to have already settled Canaan by that time. The Jewish Encyclopedia also points out that “I Kings 6:1 fixes the interval between the exodus and the building of the Temple at over 480 years. Rehoboam — 41 years after the building of the Temple (I Kings 14:25) — is contemporaneous with Shishak, the first king of the twenty-second dynasty (c.950 B.C.) This would give about 1470 B.C. for the Exodus. The finding by Flinders Petrie (1896) of an inscription by Merneptah I, in which for the first time Isir’l occurs in an Egyptian text, as well as the contents of the El-Amarna tablets, has corroborated the virtual correctness of the date given above.” (5:296) This date of 1470 B.C. is exactly in the middle of the narrow date range given by other scholars for both the Hebrew exodus and the Danaan exile from Egypt.
The Semitic Danaan, the Tribe of Dan
The Semitic identity of the ancient Danaan sailors has been commented on by historians. G.F. Schomann stated, “Even among the ancients some considered that the [Danaan] settlers who arrived [in Greece] from Egypt were at any rate not of Egyptian descent, but adventurers of Semitic race, who, having been expelled from Egypt, had some of them turned towards Greece.” (Antiquities Of Greece, p.12)
These Danaan were not only Semitic; they were Hebrews, according to ancient Egyptian records. Professor Max Duncker, in The History Of Antiquity (I:456-466), gave fascinating details of a two-fold land/sea exodus as told in an ancient Egyptian account: “The narrative of Hecataeus of Abdera, who was in Egypt in the time of Ptolemy I, and wrote an Egyptian history, gives us the most unprejudiced account, composed from the widest point of view, and connects the emigration of the Hebrews, whom he does not consider Egyptians, with the supposed emigration from Egypt to Greece. [Hecataeus says,] “Once, when a pestilence had broken out in Egypt, the cause of the visitation was generally ascribed to the anger of the gods. [Editor’s Note: The Ten Plagues are called a “pestilence” in Exodus 9:14-15, and were indeed caused by God!] As many strangers dwelt in Egypt, and observed different customs in religion and sacrifice, it came to pass that the hereditary worship of the gods was being given up in Egypt. The Egyptians, therefore, were of opinion that they would obtain no alleviation of the evil unless they removed the people of foreign extraction. [Note: This “removal” is the Egyptian appellation for the exodus of Scripture.] When they were driven out, the noblest and bravest part of them, as some say, under noble and renowned leaders, Danaus and Cadmus, came to Hellas [Greece]; but the great bulk of them migrated into the land, not far removed from Egypt, which is now called Judea. These emigrants were led by Moses, who was the most distinguished among them for wisdom and bravery.” Hecataeus of Abdera was a Greek historian living in fourth century B.C. Egypt under Ptolemy I, a general of Alexander the Great. In the extract above, this ancient historian clearly connected both the Hebrews and the Danaan as part of the same exodus. Therefore, the Danaan were in fact the Biblical tribe of Dan — a seafaring tribe and part of the Hebrew exodus.
Another marvelous account, although also spoken with a decidedly Egyptian bias, is that of Lysimachus of Alexandria (355-281 B.C.), whose history was preserved by Flavius Josephus in Contra Apionem: “At the time of king Bocchoris [possibly the Greek name for the Pharaoh of the exodus], unclean and leprous men had come into the temples to beg for food. Hence there was a blight on the land; and Bocchoris received a response from Ammon [an Egyptian god], that the temples must be purified. The lepers, as if the sun were angry at their existence, were to be plunged into the sea, and the unclean were to be driven out of the land. Hence the lepers were... thrown into the sea; but the unclean were driven out helpless into the desert. These met together in council; in the night they lit fires and lights, and called, fasting, upon the gods to save them. Then a certain Moses advised them to go through the desert till they came to inhabited regions... they established a city Hierosyla [Jerusalem] in Judea...” (ibid., p. 463)
This ancient historic document provides evidence that the exodus involved two distinct groups with different destinations. Some of the Hebrews expelled from Egypt in the exodus were “thrown into the sea” and sailed north across the Mediterranean to found the earliest civilization in Greece, while Moses led the rest of Israel eastward “helpless into the desert” of the Wilderness.
The Exile From Egypt
What happened to cause Danaus and his followers to be expelled from Egypt? The reason handed down from the mists of time has obvious corruption to it. The Egyptian accounts refer to two brothers, Danaus and Aegyptus. Danaus was said to have 50 sons, who each married one of the 50 daughters of Aegyptus. According to the legend, each of the daughters then slew their husbands on their wedding night. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., 7:793) Aegyptus was also said to have “driven out” Danaus from Egypt. Danaus therefore designates some people who had dwelled in Egypt, and Aegyptus seems to indicate a personification of the land of Egypt itself. This strange and contorted legend, if rooted on an actual historic event, seems to indicate that some form of mass slaughter had occurred. It is far more likely that we have here evidence of the tenth plague on Egypt, the slaughter of the firstborn. This event was indeed the decisive event that caused Pharaoh to order the Hebrews to leave the land of Egypt. (Ex.12:29-33)
The waterway systems of ancient Egypt played an important part, since the Danaan went into exile on sea-going ships. The modern Suez Canal, linking the Red Sea northward to the Mediterranean, had not yet been built. Instead, a series of canals and waterways linked the Nile River eastward to the Red Sea. Encyclopedia Britannica, in an article on the Suez Canal, states: “And so it is that the earliest canals of which history has mention were constructed to link the Nile valley to the Red sea and not to pierce the narrow neck of land which separated the latter from the Mediterranean… As early as 2000 B.C., a canal linked the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, via the Wadi Tumilat, with the Bitter Lakes, whence another channel was dug to the Red sea.”
Historian Alexander Wheelock Thayer, in The Hebrews In Egypt And Their Exodus, presents evidence that on the night the exodus began, Moses had a Hebrew force seize the boats on the Nile as well as those on the canal leading to the Red Sea. Thayer says, “This may reasonably have been, to seize all the shipping and boats on the canal and Jam Suph about Pithom, to hasten… the business of crossing” the Red Sea. Thayer assumes that Moses would have been unaware that God would open a footpath through the Red Sea, and originally planned to cross by boat. It also assumes that Moses planned to patiently ferry, presumably in many hundreds of trips, all of the hundreds of thousands of people, animals, and belongings of Israel across the Red Sea while fleeing Egyptian pursuit! This would have been impractical, since “the total number of Israelites [were] probably about two millions. This number is accepted by the best critics.” (Biblical Encyclopedia by Gray and Adams I:191)
For whatever reason, a Red Sea crossing by boat was never attempted, for the Bible does not record the presence of any boats as the Israelites approached the Sea. Therefore, if Egyptian boats were seized for the exodus, a different plan was in place. The boats were apparently used instead by the Danite sailors as vehicles to escape from Egypt. The exodus was most probably two-pronged. It was an escape by both land and sea from the land of Pharaoh!
Danite Migrations To Europe
Whether it was their original intention or not, the Danaan sailed their ships north to the secluded bay of Argos in the Greek Peloponnesus. The Encyclopedia Judaica (5:1257) quotes a leading Israeli archaeologist, Y. Yadin, who states, “...there is a close relationship between the tribe of Dan and the tribe of Danaoi whose members were clearly seafarers.” This encyclopedia also tells us, “the name Dan should be regarded as a short form of Dan(ann)iel or the like.” (5:1255) Again the connection with the Greek Danaan is unmistakable. Dr. Robert Latham, one of the most respected 19th century authorities, firmly stated that the Danaan of Greece were the Israelite Tribe of Dan. In his Ethnology of Europe, Latham commented, “Neither do I think that the eponymus [i.e., founder] of the Argive [Greek] Danai was other than that of the Israelite tribe of Dan; only we are so used to confine ourselves to the soil of Palestine in our consideration of the history of the Israelites, that we... ignore the share they may have taken in the ordinary history of the world.” (p. 137)
Archaeologist Dr. Cyrus Gordon states that they later sailed from Greece to other European coastlands, including Ireland and Denmark. In his book Before Columbus, Gordon relates, “A group of Sea People bore the name of ‘Dan.’ The Bible tells how a segment of the seafaring (Judges 5:17) Danites [were part of] the tribal system of ancient Israel... The Danites were widespread. Cyprus was called Ia-Dnan ‘The Island of Dan(an).’ The same people were called Danuna, and under this name they appear as rulers of the Plain of Adana in Cilicia. Greek tradition has their eponymous ancestor, Danaos (Dan), migrating from the Nile delta to Greece...” (p.108) Note that the Israelites did in fact emigrate from Egypt. Cyrus Gordon added, “Virgil also designated the Greeks as “Danai.” Bold scholars see the influence of the Danites in Irish folk lore... and in the name of Danmark (‘Denmark’): the land of Dan...” (p. 111)
There is indeed strong evidence that the Danaan of Ireland, Cornwall and Scotland, the Danaan of Greece and Italy, as well as the Danes of Denmark, were Israelites of the tribe of Dan. W. Ewart Gladstone in Juventus Mundi states that the Tuatha de Danaan of Ireland came from the Danaan of Greece. The similarity of name would itself seem conclusive; but is there other evidence that these two groups of Danaan were related? Dr. H.R. Hall, in The Civilization of Greece In The Bronze Age, stated concerning the Greeks of the age of Homer, “Athenian funerary lekythoi [painted vases] give us coppery-red or brown hair side by side with dark-brown or black, and generally fair complexions, resembling a certain Irish Celtic type.” (p.288) Keating’s History of Ireland says, “The Dannans were a people of great learning, they had overmuch gold and silver… they left Greece after a battle with the Assyrians, and for fear of falling into the hands of the Assyrians came to Norway and Denmark (Dannemark) and thence passed over to Ireland.” (p.40) The Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters explains, “The colony called Tuatha-de-Dannan conquered the Firbolgs and became Masters of Ireland… were highly skilled in architecture and other arts from their long residence in Greece and intercourse with the Phoenicians.” (p.121) They have left their names in many places; we find Dannonia, Caledonia, and Donaghadee in the Lough of Belfast. We can see by now it is no coincidence that the early Greeks resembled the Irish Celts, because the Tuatha de Danaan of early Ireland descended from Greek “Danaan” colonists who sailed westward in search of new lands.
These Danaan colonists did indeed settle in Denmark, which name means, ‘Dan’s Mark’ or ‘Dan’s Land.’ In ancient times, Denmark was settled by a tribe called the “Dani,” according to early Roman historian, Procopius (fifth century, A.D.), who recorded that the Dani were a group of tribes inhabiting the Danish peninsula. (VI.xv.1-6) That these were part of the Hebrew tribe of Dan may be seen in the fact mentioned previously that Biblical Dan was called, “Dani-el or Dananniel,” a variation of ‘Dani’ or ‘Danaan.’